- Special balloon stents
- Extending the stented area of the aorta by placing stents beyond the leaking end of the graft
- Placing special cuffs at the end of the graft
- Use of special glue-like materials to close off the graft
- If the graft cannot be repaired using an endovascular technique, you may need an open repair/surgery to remove the stent graft and repair the aneurysm in standard open fashion
Radiofrequency ablation (or RFA) is a procedure used to reduce pain. An electrical current produced by a radio wave is used to heat up a small area of nerve tissue, thereby decreasing pain signals from that specific area.
Cryoablation is used for palliative pain control of tumors that involve the bone and/or soft tissues.
Liver Radiofrequency ablation is a treatment used in the treatment of inoperable primary liver cancer or metastatic tumors. Using Ultrasound guidance a probe is placed which will then deliver a High-frequency electrical current is used to destroy cancer cells.
Cryoablation is the process of using freezing temperatures to destroy cancer cells. It is used to treat tumors that have originated in the liver or have spread to the liver from another site. Cryoablation is often used as an alternative or an adjunct to conventional surgery.
During cryoablation, a probe circulating liquid nitrogen is placed in contact with the tumor, causing the cells to freeze. The tumor is frozen, thawed, and refrozen until the malignant cells are completely destroyed. This process is monitored with ultrasound in order to preserve as much nearby healthy tissue as possible.
Microwave ablation has a number advantages when compared to traditional RFA, a standard method for ablating liver tumors, These include:
- Speed – Microwave ablation (MWA) is faster than RFA, destroying tumors more efficiently, and reducing the time patients remain under general anesthesia.
- Simultaneous Tumor Ablation – With MWA, surgeons can ablate multiple liver tumors at the same time.
- Larger Tumor Size – MWA can ablate larger tumors than are possible with RFA.
During the procedure, which is performed under local anesthesia or mild sedation, your interventional radiologist will thread a catheter from the femoral vein or the jugular vein in the neck into the faulty varicose veins.
Through the catheter, the doctor will insert one or more coils, along with a sclerosing agent, that clots the blood and seals off the faulty vein(s). The sclerosing agent also travels into the tiny secondary branches of the blood vessels to close them off (these vessels typically cause recurrences with surgical ligation).
When the patient stands up, the vein is closed and blood no longer fills the varicose veins in the scrotum or pelvic area. The veins and pain from the varicosities goes away. For many men, their sperm count and motility also improve.
Renal Tumor Cryoablation is a treatment used to kill cancer cells with extreme cold.
During cryoablation, a thin, wand-like needle (cryoprobe) is inserted through your skin and directly into the cancerous tumor. A gas is pumped into the cryoprobe in order to freeze the tissue. Then the tissue is allowed to thaw. The freezing and thawing process is repeated several times during the same treatment session.
Cryoablation may be used to treat cancer when surgery isn’t an option.
Once the balloon is positioned under the plaque, the physician inflates it to break up and compress the plaque and widen the blood vessel, improving blood flow through the artery. In some cases, the physician may then insert a stent, a small metal-mesh tube, to prop open the artery following angioplasty.
When angioplasty is successful, it has excellent results. Approximately 60 to 70 percent of patients who have an angioplasty have patent vessels, or vessels that remain open to provide adequate blood flow to the legs, 2 years after the procedure.
The initial failure rate for angioplasty in patients with leg artery disease is only about 10 percent. Failure may occur if the catheter is unable to move through the blockage or a weakened artery collapses after angioplasty and is impossible to keep open.
Using image guidance, a vascular surgeon inserts a catheter into the popliteal (located behind the knee) or other leg vein and threads it into the vein containing the clot. The catheter tip is placed into the clot and a “clot busting” drug is infused directly to the thrombus (clot). The fresher the clot, the faster it dissolves, usually in one to two days.
Any narrowing in the vein that might lead to future clot formation can be identified by venography, an imaging study of the veins, and treated by the physician with a balloon angioplasty or stent placement.
For patients who are not good candidates for a thrombectomy and for whom blood thinners are not medically appropriate, the physician can insert a vena cava filter, a small device that functions like a catcher’s mitt to capture blood clots but allow normal liquid blood to pass.
For the treatment of DVT and to prevent a blood clot from traveling to the lungs, vascular surgeons like Dr. Julien can perform a minimally invasive procedure to break up the clot.
Under local anesthesia, possibly with a mild sedative, we make a tiny incision to access the blood stream through the femoral artery in the groin or the jugular vein in the neck. A tiny catheter and needle are inserted through the blood stream and navigated to the vein where we can address the problem.
We may need to close off a vein or insert a device to open the vein, and there are several ways to do that, depending on the location and type of vein problem.
Embolization is often used to treat internal bleeding and help prevent heavy bleeding during surgery. In some cases, embolization may be a treatment option for difficult-to-reach, inoperable tumors. It may also be used to treat tumors that are too large to be ablated.
Embolization can be used to treat:
- Metastatic cancer in the liver
- Neuroendocrine tumors
- Uterine fibroids